The Americans with Disabilities Act: CFIDS and Employment
AN INVISIBLE DISABILITY?
People with CFIDS (PWCs) face a tremendous economic challenge. Some PWCs are
forced into the nightmare of red tape seeking financial assistance from the
federal government. Others are trying to remain economically independent by
seeking new employment, remaining in present positions or attempting to return
to work. These PWCs may benefit from some accommodation from their employers,
but CFIDS may be an invisible disability. There may be no readily apparent need
for accommodation. This may cause a misunderstanding in the work place. A PWC
may be perceived as being: lazy, unmotivated or antisocial. This may create a
stressful work environment and lower the PWC's chances for success.
WHAT IS THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)?
The ADA is a federal anti-discrimination statue designed to remove barriers
that prevent qualified individuals with disabilities from enjoying the same
employment opportunities available to non-disabled people.
There are five titles under the ADA. Title 1 outlaws job discrimination by: all
state and local employers after January 26, 1992, employers with 25 or more
employees after July 26, 1992, and with 15 employees or more after July 26,
IS CFIDS A DISABILITY?
PWCs may be considered disabled and protected under the ADA. The ADA
definition of a "disability" is:
- 1. A "major physical" or "mental impairment" that "substantially limits"
a "major life activity." OR...
- 2. Having a "record" of an impairment, such as "educational, medical or
employment records." OR...
- 3. Being "regarded" as having such an impairment.
WHAT DOES "SUBSTANTIALLY LIMITS A MAJOR LIFE ACTIVITY" MEAN?
- 1. "Substantially limits" is defined as being unable to perform a "major
life activity" as an average person would.
- 2. "Major life activities" may include: breathing, walking, sitting,
standing, lifting, reaching, performing manual tasks, caring for oneself,
learning, working, etc.
A PWC wold have to meet one of the "disability" criteria to be considered
disabled under the ADA. There is no legislative list of specific conditions that
would constitute a disability. This determination is based on the disabling
effect that CFIDS has had on your ability to perform "major life activities."
For example, a PWC may have a physical impairment because it substantially
limits his/her ability to stand, walk or even breathe as an average person is
able to.The second and third parts of the definition may assist those PWCs
re-entering the job market. A PWC who has recovered or is in remission may be
protected by having a history of an impairment in medical/employment records.
WHAT IS A "QUALIFIED INDIVIDUAL?"
To be covered under the ADA, the individual must meet one of the "disability"
criteria. He/she must be qualified to perform the "essential functions" of the
job with or without "reasonable accommodation."
- 1. A "qualified individual with a disability" must satisfy the
requirements of the job. These qualifications may include educational
background, job experience, licenses, etc.
- 2. A "qualified individual with a disability" must be able to perform
the "essential functions" of the job with or without "reasonable
accommodation." The "essential functions" are the fundamental duties/tasks
of the job. They are not marginal or incidental tasks that are not directly
related to the job.
WHAT IS "REASONABLE ACCOMMODATION?"
"Reasonable accommodation" is any change that an employer is able to make
that allows an "otherwise qualified" applicant/employee to perform the
"essential functions" of the job and share the benefits that non-disabled
workers have. Some examples are:
- 1. Providing or modifying equipment
- 2. Job restructuring or re-assignment
- 3. Modification of a work schedule or a part-time schedule
- 4. Adjusting or modifying exams, materials or policies
- 5. Allowed use of accrued pair or unpaid leave
MAKING THE WORK PLACE ACCESSIBLE TO/USABLE BY THE DISABLED
According the the ADA handbook, the best way to identify a possible
accommodation is to have an informal consultation with the present or future
AM IN PROTECTED UNDER THE ADA?
To be covered under the ADA, you must be a "qualified individual with a
disability" and able to perform the "essential functions" of the job with or
without "reasonable accommodation." This is not an affirmative action program.
An employer may hire the best qualified applicant without discriminating against
a qualified person with disability. These are broad legal terms that are left up
to interpretation. Because of this, the attorneys with whom I consulted stated
that each case must be reviewed on an individual basis.
1. For advocacy and public awareness in fostering job opportunities for
individuals with disabilities:
President's Committee on Employment of People With Disabilities
1131 F Street, NW
Washington, DC 20004-1106
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
1801 L Street, NW
Washington, DC 20507
2. For specific information about ADA requirements affecting employment:
3. For information on non-discrimination in employment and education:
Department of Education Office for Civil Rights
330 C Street SW
Washington, DC 20202