Cytotoxic Profiling of Plant Secondary Metabolites on P53 Variant Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Lines

Vukmirovic D, Rollo D, Seymour C, Mothersill C; Dose Response. 2017 Dec 21;15(4):1559325817748121


Chemoprevention strategies employ the use of compounds to inhibit the initiation, promotion, and progression phases of carcinogenesis. The successful chemopreventative candidate must therefore selectively inhibit growth of transformed cells and be administered on a frequent basis to confer maximal protection. Phytochemicals are a subclass of bioactive plant secondary metabolites that exhibit antioxidative, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties contributing to proper cell function. To assess the effectiveness of these compounds warrants an understanding of their cytotoxic mode of action. In this study, p53 variant human colon carcinoma cell lines were chronically exposed to varying concentrations of the phytochemicals-curcumin, andrographolide, and d-limonene-to determine the role of p53-induced cytotoxicity, with p53-mutant and p53-deficient cell lines representing precancerous lesions. Cytotoxicity was assessed using clonogenic assays and macroscopic colony counts were used to quantify cell survival. The results demonstrate that each phytochemical exhibits selective cytotoxicity toward nonfunctional p53 cell lines, suggesting a p53-mediated role in inhibition of cell clonogenicity and potential chemopreventative properties. Although each compound displays this described effect, only the d-limonene demonstrates considerable chemoprotection, suggesting it might have practical implications in vivo. [Research grant from NCF]

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